Glossary

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  M  O  P  R  S  T  U  W 

A

Aquaculture

The cultivation of aquatic produce such as aquatic plant, fish, and other aquatic animal

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aquaculture

Aquifer

An underground layer of water-bearing porous stone, earth, or gravel

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aquifer

B

Basin

An area of land that drain into a river or ocean

Boil-water-advisory

A public notice issued by a provincial or local health authority informing the users of a public water system that their drinking water is, or potentially is, unsafe microbiologically and that it should be boiled before use. To kill water pathogens, water should be brought to a rolling boil for one minute, then allowed to cool (protected from further contamination) before consumption.

Source: http://waterwiki.net/index.php/Boil_water_advisory-order

C

Catchment area

See Watershed

Closed watershed

A watershed in which water does not drain into an ocean or another body of water, and can escape only by evaporating or seeping into the Earth

D

Dam

Structure placed across a flowing body of water to stop the flow

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dam

Delta

A triangular area of land at the mouth of a river where it empties into a body of water

Discharge

To flow out of a body of water or urban infrastructure

Divert

To alter the natural flow of a body of water

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/divert

Downstream

Lower down, in relation to the direction a river or stream flows

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/downstream

Drainage basin

See Watershed

Dredge

To make a channel deeper or wider using a dredge

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/dredge

Drought

A prolonged period of below average rainfall, longer and more severe than a dry_spell

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/drought

E

Ecosystem

1. A system formed by an ecological community and its environment that function as a unit.
2. The interconnectedness of organisms (plants, animals, microbes) with each other and their environment.

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ecosystem

Effluent

Sewage water that has been (partially) treated, and is released into a natural body of water; a flow of any liquid waste

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/effluent

Endorheic

(Of a lake or basin) Internally drained; having no outlet

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endorheic

Erosion

The act of wearing away or being eroded, as by a glacier on rock or the sea on a cliff face

Estuary

1. coastal water body where ocean tide and river water merge.
2. An ocean inlet also fed by fresh river water.

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/estuary

Evaporation

The process of a liquid converting to a gaseous state

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/evaporation

F

Flood

An overflow of water from a lake or other body_of_water due to excessive rainfall or other input of water

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/flood

Flow

1. The movement of a fluid
2. The amount of a fluid that moves or the rate of fluid movement

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/flow

Fresh water

water with a very low content of dissolved salt, as opposed to brackish water or salt_water

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fresh_water

G

Glacier

A large body of ice, which flows under its own mass, usually downhill

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/glacier

Groundwater

water that exists beneath the Earth's surface in underground stream and aquifer

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/groundwater

H

Headwater

The source, and the initial part, of a stream

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/headwater

Hydrocarbon

A compound consisting only of carbon and hydrogen atoms

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hydrocarbon

Hydroelectricity

Electricity produced from the energy of moving water

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hydroelectricity

Hydroelectric dam

Structure placed across a flowing body of water to stop the flow that contains hydroelectric generators

Hydrology

The science of the properties, distribution, and effect of water on a planet's surface, in the soil and underlying rock, and in the atmosphere

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hydrology

Hydrological cycle

Also known as the water cycle, the hydrologic cycle describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hydrological_cycle

Hydropower

See Hydroelectricity

I

Icefield

1. A network of interconnected glacier or ice streams having a common source
2. A large expanse of floating ice (several kilometres long)

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ice_field

Irrigation

The act or process of irrigating, or the state of being irrigated; especially, the operation of causing water to flow over lands, for nourishing plants

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/irrigation

M

Marine

Of, or pertaining to, the sea (marine biology, marine insurance)

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/marine

Meltwater

Water from melting ice or snow

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/meltwater

O

Ocean watershed

An area of land that drains into an ocean

Open watershed

A watershed in which water drains into an ocean or another body of water

P

Peatland

Land with peat soil, such as an active or former bog

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/peatland

R

Reservoir

A place where water is collected and kept for use when wanted, as to supply a fountain, a canal, or a city by means of aqueduct.

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/reservoir

River basin

An extent of land where water from rain or snow melt drains downhill into a river or series of rivers.

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/river_basin

Runoff

That portion of precipitation or irrigation on an area which does not infiltrate or evaporate, but instead is discharged from the area.

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/runoff

S

Salt marsh

A marsh of saline water, found in the intertidal zone between land and sea, characterized by halophytic plants such as grass and sedge adapted to periodic flooding with salt water

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/salt_marsh

Seawater

The saltwater of a sea or ocean

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/seawater

Sediment

A collection of small particle, particularly dirt, that precipitate from a river or other body_of_water

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/sediment

Seepage

The process by which a liquid leaks through a porous substance; the process of seep

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/seepage

Slough

1. A muddy or marshy area
2. A type of swamp or shallow lake system, typically formed as or by the backwater of a larger waterway, similar to a bayou with trees
3. A secondary channel of a river delta, usually flushed by the tide

Snowpack

An accumulation of pack snow, usually the seasonal amount

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/snowpack

Stewardship

The act of caring for or improving with time

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stewardship

Stormwater

Water that is not absorbed into soil and rapidly flows downstream, increasing the level of waterways

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stormwater

Surface flow

Water running above ground, on the Earth's surface.

Surface water

Water collecting on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, sea or ocean, as opposed to groundwater

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/surface_water

T

Tailings

The waste that remains after the mineral have been extracted from an ore-by-ore_dressing; slime

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/tailings

Tailings pond

Area of mining tailings where the water borne waste material is pumped into a pond to allow the separation of solid particles from the water

Total flow

The sum of all water, below ground and on the surface, running in a river, stream or watershed

Tributary

A river that flows into a larger river or other body of water

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/tributary

U

Upstream

In a direction against the flow of a current or stream; upriver

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/upstream

Urbanization

1. The process of the formation and growth of cities
2. The change in a country or region when its population migrate from rural to urban areas

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/urbanization

W

Wastewater

Any water that has been used by some human, domestic or industrial activity and, because of that, now contains waste products

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wastewater

Water cycle

See Hydrological cycle

Watershed

A region of land within which water flows down into a specified body, such as a river, lake, sea, or ocean; also called a drainage basin or catchment area

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/watershed

Wetland

Land that is covered mostly with water, with marsh and soggy areas

Source: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/wetland