Canadian Geographic
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Not until the 16th century, when trade between Europe and the Orient pushed many European explorers to seek a shorter route between the Atlantic and Pacific — namely, a Northwest or Northeast Passage — did Arctic exploration really begin.


The Arctic is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change on the planet. Because the waters of the Arctic Ocean join the world’s global ocean system, what happens in the Arctic doesn’t stay in the Arctic. Melting glaciers and ice caps lead to rising sea levels around the world, and changing water temperatures affect weather patterns over continents to the south.

At the same time, the Arctic is experiencing a rise in commercial, industrial, scientific and military activity. The Northwest Passage, a long-sought-after sea route that links the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, will be easier to access as the ice cover shrinks. Since the Arctic is thought to contain 13 percent of the world’s undiscovered oil and 30 percent of the world’s undiscovered natural-gas reserves, oil and gas exploration in the Arctic Ocean is set to intensify. More than 20 cruise ships carry tourists to the Arctic every year.

The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) monitors changes in the Arctic and help ships, icebreakers and planes navigate the ice-infested waters. Using a range of tools, the CSA helps ensure that the Arctic is no longer the remote region of near mythical stature that it was in the days of such famed explorers as John Franklin, Roald Amundsen and Ernest Shackleton.



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Quiz :

In which layer of the atmosphere is the Ozone layer located?

Cryosphere
Stratosphere
Stomatosphere