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Forged in war

Treaty of Paris


After the capitulation of the French forces at Montréal in September 1760 British and American provincial troops occupied the French posts around and south of the Great Lakes. American traders moved in but their abusive attitudes and dishonest trade practices, in marked contrast to the well-regulated French trade, antagonized the Indians. At the same time General Jeffery Amherst terminated the customary ‘presents,’ which the Indians regarded as compensation for the right to trade in and travel through their lands. Despite the assurances given the Indian nations by the British, American settlers flooded into their country.

By virtue of the Treaty of Paris, 10 Feb 1763, France ceded to Great Britain all her possessions and rights in North America, save the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, fishing rights on the Newfoundland shore, and Louisiana, which was ceded to Spain. Indian nations were not mentioned in the treaty, yet it was, for the most part their lands that were being bargained away. They protested vehemently that the King of France had no right to grant to another what had never been his and prepared for war. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was intended to forfend this eventuality. It came too late.

Realizing what the future held, the Indians, in a loose federation, struck back. They attacked the British-held forts and the American encroachers who fled back over the mountains. It remained to the undermanned British army to counterattack. The Indians were unable, despite early victories, to sustain a long campaign. They had no supply of munitions other than those that they could seize from the enemy. They were also weakened by an epidemic of smallpox when, on Amherst’s orders, clothing from the victims of the disease was distributed among them. By the autumn of 1764 they were forced to submit.

Synopsis

This map allows viewers to select various highlighted regions of the Treaty of Paris, including British North America, United States of America, and French and Spanish Territories.



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On the next page:

Invasion Repulsed, 1812


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Quiz :

Against who did the United States declare war in June 1812 resulting in the invasion of Upper Canada?

Great Britain
Canada
France