Canadian Geographic
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First Peoples


Historic Indian treaties encompass several agreements made between 1725 and 1923 by the Crown with various native tribes. Included were “peace and friendship” agreements in the east, and the “numbered” (1 to 11) treaties covering vast tracts in the west and north. Many tribes in Atlantic Canada, British Columbia, and Quebec were still without treaties when this phase ended. In the 1970s, courts began ruling that native title rights exist in law. This prompted Ottawa to begin a flurry of modern treaties, the first being the 1975 James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement with the Cree and Inuit.
Another Inuit agreement in 1993 led to Nunavut’s creation six years later. Hundreds of modern treaties have now been made. Of 60 to 70 still in negotiation, some 50 are in British Columbia. An agreement with the Nisga’a in 2000 marked that province’s first modern treaty. Negotiations elsewhere include Innu territory in Quebec, an Ottawa River valley claim by the Algonquin, and a Mississauga claim for compensation for some 102,000 hecatres on which Toronto and many of its suburbs sit.


Treaties The animation starts with a map of Canada. Gradually, areas, mostly in the north, but also most of modern Quebec and B.C., are coloured to show regions governed by treaties. Different shades indicate year or types of treaties, and areas without treaties.


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Growing populations

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Quiz :

Which two languages dominated the Eastern Woodlands aboriginal cultures?

Athabaskan and Iroquoian
Algonquian and Iroquoian
Algonquian and Athabaskan