Canadian Geographic
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First Peoples


A network of independent native nations was spread across what is now Canada when the Europeans arrived. The nations spoke 55 languages and occupied vastly different environments. Their social and trading rituals, religious beliefs, and political structures were quite varied. Nevertheless, they could be classified into six major cultural groups. They all shared a profound respect for nature, and all lacked immunity to smallpox, measles, and other imported diseases that would later all but wipe out the native population.


The earliest arrivals The animation starts with a map of Canada; light blue areas come in to show ice sheets during ice ages. Then, numbered arrows show arrival routes of various groups of First Peoples.

Content (Narration)

A network of independent native nations was spread across this land when the Europeans arrived. But who were the earliest arrivals to an ice-covered Canada? Click on an arrow to learn more.


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Quiz :

Which of these is not a Plains aboriginal culture?