Canadian Geographic
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Canadian landforms

Rocks and minerals

A jumble of ceaselessly recycled igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks makes up the earth’s surface. Igneous rock (granite, gneiss) forms when molten rock cools. The Canadian Shield’s igneous base abounds in copper, gold, iron, and nickel. Sedimentary rock (sandstone, limestone) consists of hardened layers of rock particles. Beneath the Prairies, sedimentary layers store oil, gas, and coal. Mineral-rich metamorphic rock, baked or compressed igneous or sedimentary rock, shows up in the Shield and Cordillera.


Rocks and minerals This slide show consists of three images of different types of rocks: sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous, along with descriptions of each.


On the next page:

Plate tectonics

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Quiz :

In which era did dinosaurs appear, dominate, and then die out?