Canadian Geographic
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INSIDE: Wetlands Go now!

Realms of refuge and recreation
Wetlands such as marshes, swamps, and bogs host animals ranging from amphibians and fish to large mammals.


Half of Canada lies within the Arctic and Taiga ecozones, which manifest some of the nation’s many climatic and environmental extremes. The Arctic is characterized by treeless tundra, carpeted with low-lying vegetation of mosses, lichens, herbs, and dwarf shrubs; and the Taiga, by sticklike forests of spruce and fir, interspersed with immense wetlands. The region’s marine ecozones — the Arctic and the Arctic Archipelago, including Hudson and James bays — are as vast and complex as the terrestrial ecozones. Given the immensity of these regions, few generalizations can be made about them that are totally valid. Yet, one thing is sure: the environment of these ecozones is fragile, slow to change, and easy to disturb. In earlier times, Europeans hunted for whales, seals, and furs; today, developers search for minerals, gas, and oil in a rich — but vulnerable — environment. Politically, these regions encompass Canada’s most sparsely populated regions: Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, the Yukon’s coastal strip, and the northern parts of six provinces. The indigenous people who have long survived here are now reasserting control over their traditional domain.


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Quiz :

How large is the Southern Arctic ecozone?

40,000 km²
1,500,000 km²
800,000 km²